After just seven years, The Gambia permanently withdrew from the confederation in Though these soldiers fought mostly in Burma , some died closer to home and a Commonwealth War Graves Commission cemetery is in Fajara close to Banjul. Following the proclamation of a republic in , the long-form name of the country became Republic of The Gambia. The Portuguese reached this area by sea in the midth century, and began to dominate overseas trade. During the late 17th century and throughout the 18th century, the British Empire and the French Empire struggled continually for political and commercial supremacy in the regions of the Senegal River and the Gambia River. The Gambia received its own executive and legislative councils in , and it gradually progressed toward self-government. President Sir Dawda Jawara was re-elected five times. An agreement with the French Republic in established the present boundaries.
The Provisional Independent Electoral Commission PIEC was established in to conduct national elections and transformed into the Independent Electoral Commission IEC in and became responsible for registration of voters and for the conduct of elections and referendums. During the late 17th century and throughout the 18th century, the British Empire and the French Empire struggled continually for political and commercial supremacy in the regions of the Senegal River and the Gambia River. Post-Independence —present [ edit ] The Gambia achieved independence on 18 February , as a constitutional monarchy within the Commonwealth , with Elizabeth II as Queen of the Gambia , represented by the Governor-General. After World War II, the pace of constitutional reform increased. Though these soldiers fought mostly in Burma , some died closer to home and a Commonwealth War Graves Commission cemetery is in Fajara close to Banjul. Senegambian stone circles megaliths which run from Senegal through the Gambia and which are described by UNESCO as "the largest concentration of stone circles seen anywhere in the world". Most of those taken were sold by other Africans to Europeans: The Gambia sentenced main opposition leader and human rights advocate Ousainou Darboe to 3 years in prison in July ,  disqualifying him from running in the presidential election. An agreement with the French Republic in established the present boundaries. Shortly thereafter, the national government held a referendum proposing that the country become a republic. Slave ships intercepted by the Royal Navy 's West Africa Squadron in the Atlantic were also returned to the Gambia, with people who had been slaves released on MacCarthy Island far up the Gambia River where they were expected to establish new lives. Letters patent from Queen Elizabeth I confirmed the grant. On 2 October , the Gambian interior minister announced that The Gambia would leave the Commonwealth with immediate effect, ending 48 years of membership of the organisation. Following the proclamation of a republic in , the long-form name of the country became Republic of The Gambia. As many as three million people may have been taken as slaves from this general region during the three centuries that the transatlantic slave trade operated. An attempted coup on 29 July followed a weakening of the economy and allegations of corruption against leading politicians. President Sir Dawda Jawara was re-elected five times. It also tried, unsuccessfully, to end the slave trade in the Gambia. Both groups established trans-Saharan trade routes, leading to a large export trade of local people as slaves , also gold and ivory , as well as imports of manufactured goods. This was finally ceded to the United Kingdom in By 6 August, some 2, Senegalese troops had been deployed, defeating the rebel force. By the 11th or 12th century, the rulers of kingdoms such as Takrur , a monarchy centred on the Senegal River just to the north, ancient Ghana and Gao had converted to Islam and had appointed to their courts Muslims who were literate in the Arabic language. The Senegambia Confederation aimed to combine the armed forces of the two states and to unify their economies and currencies. History of the Gambia Arab traders provided the first written accounts of the Gambia area in the ninth and tenth centuries. After just seven years, The Gambia permanently withdrew from the confederation in
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