Cattle are known for regurgitating and re-chewing their food, known as cud chewing, like most ruminants. It requires the recollection of the learned idiosyncratic identity of an individual that has been previously encountered and the formation of a mental representation. Furthermore, they are able to categorize images as familiar and unfamiliar individuals. Given the small amount of erectile tissue, there is little enlargement after erection. Protrusion is not affected much by erection, but more by relaxation of the retractor penis muscle and straightening of the sigmoid flexure. The term dogies is used to describe orphaned calves in the context of ranch work in the American West , as in "Keep them dogies moving".
The reticulum, the smallest compartment, is known as the "honeycomb". Protrusion is not affected much by erection, but more by relaxation of the retractor penis muscle and straightening of the sigmoid flexure. The abomasum is like the human stomach; this is why it is known as the "true stomach". The microbes inside the rumen also synthesize amino acids from non-protein nitrogenous sources, such as urea and ammonia. Breeding stock may be allowed a longer lifespan, occasionally living as long as 25 years. An onomatopoeic term for one of the most common sounds made by cattle is moo also called lowing. It consists of transferring, to the uterine cavity , spermatozoa previously collected and processed, with the selection of morphologically more normal and mobile spermatozoa. A castrated male occasionally a female or in some areas a bull kept for draft or riding purposes is called an ox plural oxen ; ox may also be used to refer to some carcass products from any adult cattle, such as ox-hide, ox-blood, oxtail, or ox-liver. Careful genetic selection has allowed polled hornless cattle to become widespread. Cattle can tell the difference between familiar and unfamiliar animals of the same species conspecifics. The term dogies is used to describe orphaned calves in the context of ranch work in the American West , as in "Keep them dogies moving". Cattle are known for regurgitating and re-chewing their food, known as cud chewing, like most ruminants. After that, they are referred to as yearlings or stirks  if between one and two years of age. An adult female that has had a calf or two, depending on regional usage is a cow. Cows of certain breeds that are kept for the milk they give are called dairy cows or milking cows formerly milch cows. The term is also incorporated into the names of other species, such as the musk ox and "grunting ox" yak , and is used in some areas to describe certain cattle products such as ox-hide and oxtail. New packing plants in the s stimulated a large increase in cattle weights. Furthermore, almost all the heifers recognized unknown individuals from different breeds, although this was achieved with greater difficulty. A Hereford bull In general, the same words are used in different parts of the world, but with minor differences in the definitions. Improper or late castration on a bull results in it becoming a coarse steer known as a stag in Australia, Canada and New Zealand. It requires the recollection of the learned idiosyncratic identity of an individual that has been previously encountered and the formation of a mental representation. There are a number of other sounds made by cattle, including calves bawling, and bulls bellowing. Cattle raised for human consumption are called beef cattle. The oldest recorded cow, Big Bertha , died at the age of 48 in As these microbes reproduce in the rumen, older generations die and their cells continue on through the digestive tract. Neat horned oxen, from which neatsfoot oil is derived , beef young ox and beefing young animal fit for slaughtering are obsolete terms, although poll, pollard and polled cattle are still terms in use for naturally hornless animals, or in some areas also for those that have been disbudded or dehorned. Their fertility is closely related to the size of their testicles , and one simple test of fertility is to measure the circumference of the scrotum:
Video about bull and cow are sex:
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