Its earliest proponents rejected Deism and the belief that all religions would unite into one, and it later faced the challenges of the Ethical movement and Unitarianism. This shift was not accompanied by a distinct new doctrine or by the abandonment of the former, but rather with ambiguity. From its beginning, Reform Judaism attempted to harmonize the language of petitions with modern sensibilities and what the constituents actually believed in. In addition to the other traditional precepts its founders rejected, they also denied the belief in the future bodily Resurrection of the dead. American Reform, especially, turned action for social and progressive causes into an important part of religious commitment. According to this view, all holy scripture of Judaism, including the Pentateuch, were authored by human beings who, though under divine inspiration, inserted their understanding and reflected the spirit of their consecutive ages.
In addition to the other traditional precepts its founders rejected, they also denied the belief in the future bodily Resurrection of the dead. When institutionalized and free of such constraints, it was able to pursue a more radical course. In its early stages, when Reform Judaism was more a tendency within unified communities in Central Europe than an independent movement, its advocates had to practice considerable moderation, lest they provoke conservative animosity. As early as , the Breslau conference announced that women must enjoy identical obligations and prerogatives in worship and communal affairs, though this decision had virtually no effect in practice. The only perceived form of retribution for the wicked, if any, was the anguish of their soul after death, and vice versa, bliss was the single accolade for the spirits of the righteous. In the late 19th and early 20th Century, American "Classical Reform" often emulated Berlin on a mass scale, with many communities conducting prayers along the same style and having additional services on Sunday. This highly rationalistic view virtually identified human reason and intellect with divine action, leaving little room for direct influence by God. Challenges of modern culture have made steady belief difficult for some. Yet he stated that his ideas by no means negated the concept of ongoing, individually experienced revelation by all. The declining importance of the theoretical foundation, in favour of pluralism and equivocalness, did draw large crowds of newcomers. Jakob Josef Petuchowski , in his extensive survey of Progressive liturgy, listed several key principles that defined it through the years and many transformations it underwent. These soon spread outside the movement, though many of a more traditional leaning rejected the name "confirmation". Most Liberal communities in Germany maintained dietary standards and the like in the public sphere, both due to the moderation of their congregants and threats of Orthodox secession. Religious divorce was declared redundant and the civil one recognized as sufficient by American Reform in , and in Germany by ; the laws concerning dietary and personal purity, the priestly prerogatives, marital ordinances and so forth were dispensed with, and openly revoked by the Pittsburgh Platform , which declared all ceremonial acts binding only if they served to enhance religious experience. This shift was not accompanied by a distinct new doctrine or by the abandonment of the former, but rather with ambiguity. Tikkun Olam has become the central venue for active participation for many affiliates, even leading critics to negatively describe Reform as little more than a means employed by Jewish liberals to claim that commitment to their political convictions was also a religious activity and demonstrates fealty to Judaism. No less importantly, it provided the clergy with a rationale for adapting, changing and excising traditional mores and bypassing the accepted conventions of Jewish Law, rooted in the orthodox concept of the explicit transmission of both scripture and its oral interpretation. In "Classical" times, personal observance was reduced to little beyond nothing. Outside North America and Britain, patrilineal descent was not accepted by most. The God-Idea as taught in our sacred Scripture" as consecrating the Jewish people to be its priests. The German founding fathers undermined the principles behind the legalistic process, which was based on a belief in an unbroken tradition through the ages merely elaborated and applied to novel circumstances, rather than subject to change. The various streams of Reform still largely, though not always or strictly, uphold the idea. Very often indistinguishable from the ACLU One major expression of that, which is the first clear Reform doctrine to have been formulated, is the idea of universal Messianism. The leadership allowed and encouraged a wide variety of positions, from selective adoption of halakhic observance to elements approaching religious humanism. Same-sex marriage were sanctioned by the end of the following decade. Common to all these notions was the assertion that present generations have a higher and better understanding of divine will, and they can and should unwaveringly change and refashion religious precepts.
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