It was the beginning of his own influential political career. United States , U. In some areas of the Deep South, white resistance made these efforts almost entirely ineffectual. Legal strictures called for segregated water fountains and restrooms. The growth of their thriving middle class was slowed. Voter turnout dropped drastically through the South as a result of such measures. Observers such as Ian F.
Ferguson , in which the Court ruled that "separate but equal" facilities were constitutional. Truman issued Executive Order , desegregating the armed services. European Americans were effectively exempted from the literacy testing, whereas black Americans were effectively singled out by the law. Despite Jim Crow's legal pretense that the races be "separate but equal" under the law, non-whites were given inferior facilities and treatment. Anti-miscegenation laws were not repealed by the Civil Rights Act of  but were declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court ruling in Loving v. In Louisiana, by , black voters were reduced to 5, on the rolls, although they comprised the majority of the state's population. In baseball, a color line instituted in the s had informally barred blacks from playing in the major leagues , leading to the development of the Negro Leagues , which featured many fine players. The decision had far-reaching social ramifications. Plessy refused and was immediately arrested. Most blacks still lived in the South, where they had been effectively disfranchised, so they could not vote at all. White opposition led to their exclusion from most organized sporting competitions. One rationale for the systematic exclusion of black Americans from southern public society was that it was for their own protection. With white southern Democrats forming a solid voting bloc in Congress, due to having outsize power from keeping seats apportioned for the total population in the South although hundreds of thousands had been disenfranchised , Congress did not pass another civil rights law until In the s, Democrats gradually regained power in the Southern legislatures, having used insurgent paramilitary groups, such as the White League and the Red Shirts , to disrupt Republican organizing, run Republican officeholders out of town, and intimidate blacks to suppress their voting. Such segregation continues today in many regions. Leroy Irvis of Pittsburgh 's Urban League, for instance, led a demonstration against employment discrimination by the city's department stores. The finding contributed to 58 more years of legalized discrimination against black and colored people in the United States. This Act had little effect. Democrats passed laws to make voter registration and electoral rules more restrictive, with the result that political participation by most blacks and many poor whites began to decrease. How complete the union has become and how dear to all of us, how unquestioned, how benign and majestic, as state after state has been added to this, our great family of free men! For instance, even in cases in which Jim Crow laws did not expressly forbid black people to participate in sports or recreation, a segregated culture had become common. Baseball teams continued to integrate in the following years, leading to the full participation of black baseball players in the Major Leagues in the s. The group persuaded Homer Plessy to test it; he was a man of color who was of fair complexion and one-eighth "Negro" in ancestry. Legal strictures called for segregated water fountains and restrooms. It was the beginning of his own influential political career. In President Harry S. In its pivotal decision, the Court unanimously overturned the Plessy decision.
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