Kennedy invited African-American novelist James Baldwin , along with a large group of cultural leaders, to a meeting in New York to discuss race relations. Finalized plans for the March were announced in a press conference on July 2. We became like brothers. Some, including Rustin who assembled 4, volunteer marshals from New York , were concerned that it might turn violent, which could undermine pending legislation and damage the international image of the movement. Some called for a complete shutdown of the city through civil disobedience. Fauntroy reportedly told them: Most of the demonstrators did carry pre-made signs, available in piles at the Washington Monument.
However, some politicians claimed that the March was Communist-inspired, and the Federal Bureau of Investigation FBI produced numerous reports suggesting the same. We don't have the money to fly in airplanes. Roy Wilkins was threatened with assassination if he did not leave the country. Others argued that the movement should remain nationwide in scope, rather than focus its energies on the nation's capital. They treat you much nicer. Stadium, was nearly four miles from the Lincoln Memorial rally site. King and Young agreed. They wanted to focus on joblessness and to call for a public works program that would employ blacks. Jailers allowed inmates to watch the March on TV. I believe that was the first time a white person has ever really been nice to me. Background[ edit ] Bayard Rustin left and Cleveland Robinson right , organizers of the March, on August 7, Although African Americans had been legally freed from slavery , elevated to the status of citizens and the men given full voting rights at the end of the American Civil War , many continued to face social, economic, and political repression over the years and into the s. Organizers persuaded New York's MTA to run extra subway trains after midnight on August 28, and the New York City bus terminal was busy throughout the night with peak crowds. The Pentagon readied 19, troops in the suburbs. Violent confrontations broke out in the South: Philip Randolph and Bayard Rustin began planning the march in December Wilkins pushed for the organizers to rule out civil disobedience and described this proposal as the "perfect compromise". With Randolph concentrating on building the march's political coalition, Rustin built and led the team of two hundred activists and organizers who publicized the march and recruited the marchers, coordinated the buses and trains, provided the marshals, and set up and administered all of the logistic details of a mass march in the nation's capital. They also experienced discrimination from businesses and governments, and in some places were prevented from voting through intimidation and violence. However, the meeting became antagonistic, as black delegates felt that Kennedy did not have a full understanding of the race problem in the nation. The Los Angeles Times received a message saying its headquarters would be bombed unless it printed a message calling the president a "Nigger Lover". To the leaders' surprise, the assembled group began to march from the Washington Monument to the Lincoln Memorial without them. Rivers stated that she was impressed by Washington's civility: As the first ceremony of such magnitude ever initiated and dominated by African Americans, the march also was the first to have its nature wholly misperceived in advance. Sitting across from me was a black preacher with a white collar. Edgar Hoover rejected its contents. Roosevelt issued Executive Order on June Dominant expectations ran from paternal apprehension to dread.
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