There have been anecdotal reports of depression and suicide in teenage steroid users, . Understanding Physical Cultures Surrey: A longitudinal survey of advertising in women's magazines" , Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics 70 4: Athletes tend to share some psychological factors that may predispose to muscle dysmorphia, factors including high levels of competitiveness, need for control, and perfectionism,  and athletes tend to be more critical of their own bodies and body weight. This DSM-5 classifies it under body dysmorphic disorder. The mechanism of these variable reactions could not be explained by demographic, psychological, laboratory, or physiological measures.
European Eating Disorders Review. A review of the literature", International Journal of Eating Disorders 29 4: History[ edit ] A rather newly recognized mental disorder, muscle dysmorphia was first conceptualized by healthcare professionals in the late s. Journal of Consultation and Liaison Psychiatry 38 6: The evolution of playgirl centerfolds", International Journal of Eating Disorders 29 1: Versus the general population, persons manifesting muscle dysmorphia are more likely to have experienced or observed traumatic events like sexual assault or domestic violence,   or to have sustained adolescent bullying and ridicule for perceived deficiencies such as smallness, weakness, poor athleticism, or intellectual inferiority. Some researchers seek muscle dysmorphia's reclassification as a behavioral addiction. Long-term steroid abusers may develop symptoms of dependence and withdrawal on discontinuation of AAS". Alteration of fertility and ovarian cysts can also occur in females. The drug response was highly variable. Feminization biology There are also sex-specific side effects of AAS. Media influences and objectification theory, Body Image 7 1: Virilization Female-specific side effects include increases in body hair , permanent deepening of the voice, enlarged clitoris , and temporary decreases in menstrual cycles. Could it be classified as an addiction to body image? The kidney damage in the bodybuilders has similarities to that seen in morbidly obese patients, but appears to be even more severe. As Western media emphasize physical attractiveness, some marketing campaigns now exploit male body-image insecurities. Athletes tend to share some psychological factors that may predispose to muscle dysmorphia, factors including high levels of competitiveness, need for control, and perfectionism,  and athletes tend to be more critical of their own bodies and body weight. Development of breast tissue in males, a condition called gynecomastia which is usually caused by high levels of circulating estradiol , may arise because of increased conversion of testosterone to estradiol by the enzyme aromatase. There have been anecdotal reports of depression and suicide in teenage steroid users, . Ashgate , , p This DSM-5 classifies it under body dysmorphic disorder. Gender-based therapy for eating disorder recovery", Professional Psychology: The American Psychiatric Association recognized muscle dysmorphia in with the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. A longitudinal survey of advertising in women's magazines" , Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics 70 4: Current research and potential classification as a disorder", Psychology of Sport and Exercise 13 5:
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