Only then were Cantello and her colleagues informed that Rosenthal had not told the truth. As a result, Rudder wrote, the couples behaved accordingly and engaged in more extended email conversations. Rosenthal, who was certain the experiment revealed a powerful and mostly subconscious dynamic, wrote about this discovery in a article in American Scientist. Moreover, Rosenthal says, the design for the experiment Thorndike found so flawed had previously won an award from the American Psychological Association. This leads to a vexing question:
When military instructors believe trainees have superior skills, the trainees perform better. The youngest of them made the most dramatic gains: Making Belief So how might teachers or other leaders communicate these high expectations? In October , researchers for the liberal advocacy group Center for American Progress cited the Pygmalion Effect as an argument in favor of the new, more rigorous Common Core State Standards, a bold education reform adopted by more than 40 states starting in Paul Ekman, a leading expert in the field who has never collaborated with Rosenthal, says that as a general rule, people communicate these high hopes via the degree to which they physically show their attentiveness. She provided classroom instruction in the power of high expectations and the methods of high-expectations teachers, while also videotaping instructors while they interacted with students to show them their demeanor while they taught. She says the videos have offered potent reality checks, adding: And indeed, over the next school year, the designated students at Spruce Elementary School in South San Francisco excelled, just as predicted. He asked a group of lab researchers to experiment with rats that he said were specially bred to be either exceptionally good or exceptionally bad at running through mazes. His study survived an extraordinary storm of controversy to become one of the most inspiring and widely cited breakthroughs in the history of psychology. Naval Reserves, prompting his father to speculate about his future career as an admiral. Toward this end, in the s, Rosenthal started studying covert communication: Low expectations may be just as influential. After his family subsequently settled in America, Rosenthal joined the U. On average, they ended the instruction year three months ahead of their peers. Courtesy of the South San Francisco Historical Society He called his discovery the Pygmalion Effect, after the mythological Greek sculptor whose love for the ivory statue of a woman he created inspired the gods to bring her to life. There are some very good reasons, he contends, to maintain high expectations about high expectations. Albert Shanker, founder and future president of the United Federation of Teachers, rebuked the Pygmalion experiment in his regular Sunday column in The New York Times, suggesting that it vilified teachers: Half a century later, however, and to the frustration of many enthusiasts, this promise remains mostly a tantalizing possibility. In , Robert Rosenthal gave an IQ test to students at the Spruce School, shown here in the s; these children may or may not have been tested. Can they be effectively taught? As a result, Rudder wrote, the couples behaved accordingly and engaged in more extended email conversations. Could the Pygmalion Effect be truly powerful only when expectations are subconscious? So the question remains: The Spruce School experiment, now a classic lesson in psychology and education classes, has since inspired legions of teachers. In her eyes, she says, every child she has taught has been a potential bloomer. In a study published last year in the Journal of the American Medical Association, researchers described a poignant example of this dynamic after they followed nearly 5, low-income families who moved out of public housing and into better neighborhoods.
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