Theoretical example[ edit ] The following example describes the operation of a spectrometer mass analyzer, which is of the sector type. Electron ionization and chemical ionization are used for gases and vapors. The magnitude of the deflection of the moving ion's trajectory depends on its mass-to-charge ratio. Techniques for ionization have been key to determining what types of samples can be analyzed by mass spectrometry. Goldstein called these positively charged anode rays "Kanalstrahlen"; the standard translation of this term into English is " canal rays ". There are several ion sources available; each has advantages and disadvantages for particular applications.
Photoionization mass spectrometry[ edit ] Photoionization can be used in experiments which seek to use mass spectrometry as a means of resolving chemical kinetics mechanisms and isomeric product branching. Once the instrument was properly adjusted, a photographic plate was inserted and exposed. The most common example of hard ionization is electron ionization EI. The term mass spectroscope continued to be used even though the direct illumination of a phosphor screen was replaced by indirect measurements with an oscilloscope. The differences in masses of the fragments allows the mass analyzer to sort the ions by their mass-to-charge ratio. Chloride atoms and ions come in two isotopes with masses of approximately 35 u at a natural abundance of about 75 percent and approximately 37 u at a natural abundance of about 25 percent. Thomson later improved on the work of Wien by reducing the pressure to create the mass spectrograph. LC-MS , since at atmospheric pressure, the filaments used to generate electrons burn out rapidly. In chemical ionization sources, the analyte is ionized by chemical ion-molecule reactions during collisions in the source. This information is used to determine the chemical element composition of the original sample i. There are several ion sources available; each has advantages and disadvantages for particular applications. In this source, a plasma that is electrically neutral overall, but that has had a substantial fraction of its atoms ionized by high temperature, is used to atomize introduced sample molecules and to further strip the outer electrons from those atoms. Hard ionization and soft ionization[ edit ] Quadrupole mass spectrometer and electrospray ion source used for Fenn's early work In mass spectrometry, ionization refers to the production of gas phase ions suitable for resolution in the mass analyser or mass filter. Ionization occurs in the ion source. Other ionization techniques[ edit ] Mass selection[ edit ] Mass analyzers separate the ions according to their mass-to-charge ratio. The detector measures the value of an indicator quantity and thus provides data for calculating the abundances of each ion present. An extraction system removes ions from the sample, which are then targeted through the mass analyzer and into the detector. Sodium atoms and ions are monoisotopic , with a mass of about 23 u. Some detectors also give spatial information, e. This one is for the measurement of carbon dioxide isotope ratios IRMS as in the carbon urea breath test A mass spectrometer consists of three components: The following two laws govern the dynamics of charged particles in electric and magnetic fields in vacuum: History of mass spectrometry Replica of J. The magnitude of the deflection of the moving ion's trajectory depends on its mass-to-charge ratio. Hard ionization techniques are processes which impart high quantities of residual energy in the subject molecule invoking large degrees of fragmentation i. Thomson 's third mass spectrometer In , Eugen Goldstein observed rays in gas discharges under low pressure that traveled away from the anode and through channels in a perforated cathode , opposite to the direction of negatively charged cathode rays which travel from cathode to anode. The speed of a charged particle may be increased or decreased while passing through the electric field, and its direction may be altered by the magnetic field. Consider a sample of sodium chloride table salt.
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