This was a catastrophe, and actually the Empire never recovered. The final score is eight Popes by marriage or descent, which is much better than any of the Renaissance families could boast of. The Pope was allowed to be primus inter pares, "first among equals," but that was it. In the 10th and 11th centuries, we have a situation that looks like that under the Renaissance Popes of the Borgias, Della Roveres, and Medici, as we will see below. The Popes were essentially going to be rulers of the world, deposing and enthroning rulers as they wished. A document was manufactured, the "Donation of Constantine," whereby secular authority over the entire Western Roman Empire had been given to the Pope by Constantine the Great.
Clement settled at Avignon, where the Papal Court then resided until -- later called the "Babylonian Captivity" of the Papacy. The Popes retreated back to the Vatican and the Vatican Palace. The Emperor Alexius Comnenus appealed to the West for help. Boniface VIII went the furtherest with this. This is what happened. Nor did it last long. That didn't help them, and Philip ended up burning the Grand Master, without so much as notifying Clement beforehand. Rome was often under the control of turbulent local aristocrats, and one reason for the Papal relocation to Avignon was to escape them. Each thus claimed to be the proper "Holy Roman Catholic and Apostolic Church," but over time the Papal use of the terminology seems curiously to have been conceded by the East. Innocent also sanctioned the appalling Albigensian Crusade which precipitated massacre and cultural devastation in the South of France. Pope Urban II got the idea to call for a "Crusade," a great Christian army, not just to help the Greeks, but to go on and reconquer Jerusalem. Subsequently, all of Europe saw the Papacy as an instrument of French policy. The Popes were essentially going to be rulers of the world, deposing and enthroning rulers as they wished. Soon this becomes customary. Soon afterwards, under Clement VIII, and before the present building was finished, this became the principal residence of the Popes. Later Crusades were the result of setbacks, like the fall of Edessa in and, much worse, the loss of Jerusalem in This began a long struggle between the German Emperors and the Popes for control of Italy and control of the Church in Germany. These were naive and dangerous pretentions given some of the rulers that the Pope would have to deal with. The subsequent Babylonian Captivity and Great Schism, not to mention the Reformation and the exposure of the Donation of Constantine as a forgery, put the Papacy at such disadvantages that it never again had as much leverage as before over secular rulers. The political consequences even in the 20th century were severe, as the political immaturity of Germany and Italy rendered them vulnerable to ideologies like Fascism and Nazism. What was left of the ancient Lateran Palace was removed by Sixtus V, who then built the smaller existing building. While the last glimmers of the Holy Land were fading, the self-importance of the Papacy was expanding. The most important parts of this were, of course, Rome itself and the area of Romagna around Ravenna in the north, with a narrow salient connecting them. This John may also have been the first Pope to adopt a new name as Pope, having previously been known as Octavian. This formally ended the political independence of the Papacy until the Concordat with Mussolini in recognized the sovereignty of the Vatican City. That was about it. This could be seen as undoing the Schism between the Chruches, since now there was a Latin Emperor and Latin Patriarch in Romania, but it didn't accomplish the real purpose.
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