With the predominance of English speakers, that language had already become dominant in business and government. From , the African-American majority elected primarily officials from its own community. When six-year-old Ruby Bridges integrated William Frantz Elementary School in the Ninth Ward , she was the first child of color to attend a previously all-white school in the South. The federal government contributed to restoring infrastructure. The New Orleans metropolitan area continued expanding in population, albeit more slowly than other major Sun Belt cities. The slaves were collectively valued at half a billion dollars. It was also under pressure from Irish, Italian and German immigrants. As part of their legal campaign, they recruited one of their own, Homer Plessy , to test whether Louisiana's newly enacted Separate Car Act was constitutional.
A prominent and violent series of confrontations occurred in when the city attempted school desegregation, following the Supreme Court ruling in Brown v. The rate of lynchings of black men was high across the South, as other states also disfranchised blacks and sought to impose Jim Crow. Anti-Italian sentiment in contributed to the lynchings of 11 Italians , some of whom had been acquitted of the murder of the police chief. Despite its role in the slave trade , New Orleans at the time had the largest and most prosperous community of free persons of color in the nation, who were often educated, middle-class property owners. The Supreme Court ruling contributed to this period as the nadir of race relations in the United States. Supreme Court in In , lieutenant governor P. The population doubled in the s and by , New Orleans had become the nation's wealthiest and the third-most populous city. Ferguson , was heard by the U. When six-year-old Ruby Bridges integrated William Frantz Elementary School in the Ninth Ward , she was the first child of color to attend a previously all-white school in the South. In , the legislature passed a constitutional amendment incorporating a " grandfather clause " that effectively disfranchised freedmen as well as the propertied people of color manumitted before the war. Statewide measures in and, after the war, further strengthened the English-only policy imposed by federal representatives. While the port remained one of the nation's largest, automation and containerization cost many jobs. By , Houston , Dallas , and Atlanta exceeded New Orleans in size, and in Miami eclipsed New Orleans, even as the latter's population reached its historic peak. New Orleans operated a racially integrated public school system during this period. Thereafter, the city grew rapidly with influxes of Americans, French , Creoles and Africans. The market expanded after the U. They were supplemented in the last two years of the War by newly organized United States Colored Troops , who played an increasingly important part in the war. The case resulting from this incident, Plessy v. In the late 20th century, however, scientists and New Orleans residents gradually became aware of the city's increased vulnerability. It was also under pressure from Irish, Italian and German immigrants. The federal government gave up and withdrew its troops in , ending Reconstruction. The nationwide financial recession and Panic of adversely affected businesses and slowed economic recovery. Nativist prejudices also surfaced. From , elections in Louisiana were marked by violence, as white insurgents tried to suppress black voting and disrupt Republican Party gatherings. Large numbers of rural ex-slaves and some free people of color from the city volunteered for the first regiments of Black troops in the War.
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